lunes, 22 de octubre de 2007

México, sitio 13 en emisión de gases de efecto invernadero

Fuente: La Jornada
Autor: Angélica Enciso L.

El país no pude darse el lujo de declarar que su participación no es tan importante en el ataque al calentamiento global, porque es corresponsable de la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y va a sufrir más cuando se agudice ese fenómeno, advirtió Edmundo de Alba, experto mexicano integrante del Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático.

México emite 1.5 por ciento de los GEI globales, ocupa el lugar 13 entre los países de más emisiones, por arriba de naciones como Francia o Italia, “en los cuales se toman medidas muy severas”, advirtió el científico, uno de los 15 mexicanos que integran el organismo internacional, que en total tiene 2 mil 500 expertos y ganó el Premio Nobel de la Paz, junto con el ex vicepresidente estadunidense Al Gore.

El especialista sostiene que a México le interesa mantener el desarrollo sostenible, para lo cual se requieren políticas vinculadas al cambio climático, y se han dado avances, “fundamentalmente en el gobierno federal, pero los gobiernos estatales o municipales no pueden estar ausentes en la formulación del programa especial” sobre el tema.

Aseveró en entrevista que las secretarías de Estado se deben comprometer en acciones vinculadas a la solución del problema.

“No puedo decir que espere algo extraordinariamente satisfactorio; de seguro se tendrán avances, al menos en la mentalidad de los planeadores, en transporte, turismo, energía, en la propia Semarnat, para avanzar en el camino que nos aleje del problema.”

Evitar desperdicios

Gobiernos y medios de comunicación, agregó, deben despertar el interés de la población; no sólo informar, sino difundir qué acciones se pueden emprender, independientemente de los políticos.

Apuntó que hay actos muy simples y convenientes para cada persona, lo principal es no desperdiciar electricidad, gasolina y agua, entre otros recursos.

También es necesario mayor desarrollo de la comunidad científica que estudia el problema, no sólo a escala nacional, sino también regional, “porque si bien el fenómeno es global, los efectos van a ser locales y las medidas de adaptación se deben dar ahí”.

En relación con el cambio climático, “lo peor de todo el asunto es que no hay umbral definido, no se puede decir 10 o 15 años. El calentamiento global es un fenómeno que se acumula lentamente, a pesar de lo cual se incrementan los riesgos. Debemos tomar más medidas ahora, no por lo que ya pasa, sino lo que puede suceder”.

Un problema, por ejemplo en la insistencia de empresarios turísticos por construir en la orilla del mar, es que “la población, si tiene alguna ganancia por hacer determinado acto, se deja llevar por ella; es desgraciadamente el comportamiento natural del hombre y de la humanidad. Sin embargo, a pesar de eso, el primer énfasis es mejorar los servicios que tenemos. Si hay un mejor sistema de detección de epidemias vamos a estar mejor preparados cuando haya más casos de paludismo o dengue; si tenemos mejores sistemas de seguridad en las costas o en los lugares más afectados por fenómenos extremos, estaremos mejor preparados para enfrentarlos; nuestra lucha es estar mejor preparados para lo que viene”.

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